Georgia clay and gravel was updating the maps
While acknowledging the significance of locally important soil characteristics (such as high quality kaolinite for ceramics; bentonite for metal casting, well drilling, or food additives; clay for various applications), this study has focused on two applications: (1) organic soil (for horticultural and other applications) and (2) soil materials in construction.These two fields of applications involve by far the largest amounts of excavated soils in Europe.Although soil parent material is usually considered as part of the pedon (e.g., soil taxonomy), in the raw material provisioning soil service, only soil layers above the parent material are considered.This designation also corresponds to the soil characterization provided by the TSSP, according to which “soil is generally defined as the top layer of the Earth’s crust, formed by mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms” (CEC 2006).
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The maps show that northern and north-eastern Europe have large stocks for both applications, while most other regions of the continent do not have large reserves of soil organic matter but are generally well suited for extraction of construction materials, with substantial intraregional differences." Data/map: The data come as a single shapefile; the polygons are those from the European Soil Database.
Raw material calculations were made for all polygons for which relevant data were available.
The result of the assessment is presented in the figures A and B (see below).
It is well acknowledged that this first approximation to highlight the availability of soil-born raw materials on the continental scale might be biased (1) by the classification of soil materials of human interest for excavation and (2) by the thematic and geographic limitations of the dataset.